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    Article  |  2021-03-24

    Evaluation Method and Mitigation Strategies for Shrinkage Cracking of Modern Concrete

    The complex compositions and large shrinkage of concrete, as well as the strong constraints of the structures, often lead to prominent shrinkage cracking problems in modern concrete structures. This paper first introduces a multi-field (hydro–thermo–hygro–constraint) coupling model with the hydration degree of cementitious materials as the basic state parameter to estimate the shrinkage cracking risk of hardening concrete under coupling effects. Second, three new key technologies are illustrated: temperature rise inhibition, full-stage shrinkage compensation, and shrinkage reduction technologies. These technologies can efficiently reduce the thermal, autogenous, and drying shrinkages of concrete. Thereafter, a design process based on the theoretical model and key technologies is proposed to control the cracking risk index below the threshold value. Finally, two engineering application examples are provided that demonstrate that concrete shrinkage cracking can be significantly mitigated by adopting the proposed methods and technologies.

    Jiaping Liu ,   Qian Tian   et al.

    Article  |  2021-03-24

    Development of Industrial Internet Security Technology in China

    As the new-generation information technology, such as cloud computing and big data, integrates in depth with traditionalindustrial operation technologies, the industrial Internet becomes a new driving force for the digital transformation of industrialenterprises. Meanwhile, industrial Internet security problems have increased; therefore, improving the technological capabilities forguaranteeing industrial Internet security becomes the prerequisite for the high-quality development of the industrial Internet. In thisstudy, we first analyze the demand for industrial Internet development and summarize the development status of industrial Internetsecurity protection, evaluation, and monitoring technologies. Subsequently, we investigate the development trend, technologicaldifficulties, and challenges for the industrial Internet security technology, and propose the key technologies and their developmentapproaches. To promote the safe and healthy development of industrial Internet in China, the industrial Internet security technologiesneed to be customized in accordance with industrial characteristics and scenarios, and closely integrate with new technologies such asbig data and AI, to achieve active defense and create endogenous security capabilities.

    Dong Yue ,   Wang Zhiqin   et al.

    Article  |  2021-03-23

    Construction and Implementation Path for Industrial Internet Standards System in China

    Industrial Internet links the new-generation information technology and advanced industries; therefore, industrial Internet standardization is crucial for both the innovative development of the industrial Internet and the effective connection of all links in the industrial chain. In this study, we review the foundation work conducted in China and abroad for the standardization of the industrial Internet in fields such as industrial network, big data, platform, and information security, and summarize the problems faced by industrial Internet standardization. Moreover, a framework of the industrial Internet standards system is proposed, consisting of basic and common, network, data, platform, and security standards. An implementation path for industrial Internet standardization is proposed and demonstrated, focusing on common demand in key areas such as reference architecture construction; interconnectivity in data circulation, processing, and use; monitoring control and decision optimization; and network security. Advancing the industrial Internet standards system requires accelerating breakthroughs for key industrial Internet standards, strengthening the application and promotion of standards, and cultivate and improve the industrial ecology.

    Hu Lin ,   Yang Jianjun   et al.

    Article  |  2021-03-23

    Network Security Management and Protection of Industrial Internet Equipment

    The new generation of information and communications technology is deeply integrated with the industrial system. The industrial Internet promotes the ubiquitous and deep interconnection and comprehensive perception of human, machines, and things. The industrial Internet equipment becomes increasingly networked, digital, and intelligent; therefore, the network security design, application management, and protection of these equipment become increasingly important. In this study, we clarify the connotation, protection scope, and requirements of the industrial Internet equipment, and summarize the development status of industrial Internet in China and abroad from the aspects of security control and security certification. Moreover, the problems regarding the network security of industrial Internet equipment in China are analyzed, and the specific implementation paths regarding the network security management and protection for the industrial internet equipment in China are discussed. Furthermore, several development suggestions are proposed. Specifically, the network security access mechanism of the industrial Internet equipment should be improved at the national level, a network security testing and certification system for the equipment should be established, research on the network security architecture and engineering application of the equipment should be promoted, and the network security risk monitoring and perception of the equipment should be strengthened.

    Ma Juan ,   Yu Guangchen   et al.

    Article  |  2021-03-22

    Layout of Foreign Industrial Internet Security Industry and Its Enlightenment to China

    The industrial Internet security industry is crucial for the healthy development of industrial Internet. The layout of this industry in developed countries and regions is relatively perfect. To strengthen the manufacturing, cyberspace, and digital sectors, the layout of this industry in China needs to be optimized. This study investigates the development demands for the industrial Internet security industry using literature research and intelligence analysis. Subsequently, the current status of industrial Internet security industry layout in the United States, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan, and other developed countries is studied from the aspects of policy guidance, enterprise innovation, collaborative development, capital integration, and alliance ecology. Based on this, the international development trend is analyzed. Meanwhile, the current status and challenges faced by China are discussed in terms of policy and standard, technology and product, market space, investment and financing, and regional layout. The study points out that the optimization of China’s industrial Internet security industry layout should draw on the useful experience of other countries and consider China’s development reality. It is suggested that China should maximize the advantages of its system and mechanism to coordinate the development of the security industry; adhere to independent innovation to create an internationally competitive brand; improve the security standards system to actively lead the international rule making; strengthen the policy and financial support for small- and medium-sized enterprises to stimulate their innovation vitality; and build a collaborative development ecology to create an international and domestic dual circulation development pattern. 

    Li Yangchun ,   Wang Hailong   et al.

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